Ukraine faces massive reconstruction needs in the aftermath of the Russian invasion. A reconstruction programme should be focussed on low-carbon technologies taking into account the cost reduction of green technologies, Ukraine’s climate policy obligations and EU accession perspective, elevated global fossil energy prices and price volatility, as well as energy independence from Russia.
Ukraine’s electricity sector will play a salient role in decarbonising the economy. A cost-optimal configuration of the power plant park in 2032 implies a complete replacement of coal-fired power generation by renewables and gas turbines. In the transition phase, around EUR 1.5 bn per year will be necessary to finance those new generation technologies.
Ukraine needs €47bn of additional investments to reach 2NDC emission targets. The €102bn figure often mentioned includes €55bn of regular investment unrelated to NDC. Ukraine’s investment need still is high, but not as high as often mentioned. Additionally, efforts must be undertaken to re-channel some of the €55bn into “green” projects. A carbon price would be a crucial instrument to achieve this.
Summary: The Housing and Utilities Subsidy (HUS) is a social transfer meant to assist low-income individuals in the payment of housing and communal services. However, and despite its heavy weight on the government budget, many poor households are not awarded the HUS (only 50% of poor households received the HUS in 2018, and only 28%
Ukraine risks significantly falling behind on implementing the National Emission Reduction Plan (NERP), a binding obligation towards the Energy Community (EnC). A debate about a possible revision of the NERP has started in Ukraine but so far focuses on relaxing the requirements of the NERP, including the deadlines already extended especially for Ukraine.